Senses, Mind, Soul, & Passions of Will
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 61.—Of the forming of Man, of the external Senses, and also the Inward, and the Mind: of the threefold appetite of the Soul, and passions of the Will
Forming of Man’s Body
It is the opinion of some Divines, that God did not immediately create the body of man, but by the assistance of the heavenly Spirits compound, and frame him; which opinion Alcinous, and Plato favor; thinking that God is the chief Creator of the whole world, of the spirits both good and bad, and therefore immortalized them: but that all kinds of mortal animals were made at the command of God; for if he should have created them, they must have been immortal.
The spirits therefore mixing Earth, Fire, Air, and Water together, made of them all, put together, one body, which they subjected to the service of the soul, assigning in it several Provinces to each power thereof, to the meaner of them, mean and low places: as to Anger the Midriff, to Lust the Womb, but to the more noble senses the Head, as the Tower of the whole body, and then the manifold Organs of Speech.
They divide the Sense into External, and Internal.
The external are divided into five, known to every one, to which there are allotted five Organs, or subjects, as it were Foundations; being so ordered, that they which are placed in the more eminent part of the body, have a greater degree of purity.
- For the Eyes placed in the uppermost place, are the most pure, and have an affinity with the Nature of Fire, and Light:
- then the Ears have the second order of place, and purity, and are compared to the Air:
- the Nostrils have the third order, and have a middle nature betwixt the Air, and the Water;
- then the Organ of tasting, which is grosser and most like to the nature of Water:
- Last of all, the touching is diffused through the whole body, and is compared to the grossness of Earth.
The more pure senses are those which perceive their Objects farthest off, as Seeing, and Hearing, then the Smelling, then the Taste, which doth not perceive but those that are nigh. But the touch perceives both ways, for it perceives bodies nigh; and as Sight discerns by the medium of the Air, so the touch perceives by the medium of a stick or pole, bodies Hard, Soft, and Moist.
Now the touch only is common to all animals. For it is most certain that man hath this sense, and in this, and taste he excels all other animals, but in the other three he is excelled by some animals, as by a Dog, who Hears, Sees, and Smells more acutely than Man, and the Lynx, and Eagles see more acutely than all other Animals, or Man.
Now the interior senses are, according to Averrois, divided into four,
- whereof the first is called Common sense, because it doth first collect, and perfect all the representations which are drawn in by the outward senses.
- The second is the imaginative power, whose office is, seeing it represents nothing, to retain those representations which are received by the former senses, and to present them to the third faculty of inward sense,
- which is the fantasy, or power of judging, whose work is also to perceive, and judge by the representations received, what or what kind of thing that is of which the representations are,
- and to commit those things which are thus discerned, and adjudged, to the memory to be kept.
For the virtues thereof in general, are discourse, dispositions, persecutions, and flights, and stirrings up to action: but in particular, the understanding of intellectuals, virtues, the manner of Discipline, Counsel, Election.
And this is that which shews us future things by dreams: whence the Fancy is sometimes named the Fantastical Intellect. For it is the last impression of the understanding; which, as saith Iamblicus, is belonging to all the powers of the mind, and forms all figures, resemblances of species, and operations, and things seen, and sends forth the impressions of other powers unto others: And those things which appear by sense, it stirs up into an opinion, but those things which appear by the Intellect, in the second place it offers to opinion, but of it self it receives images from all, and by its property, doth properly assign them, according to their assimilation, forms all the actions of the soul, and accommodates the external to the internal, and impresses the body with its impression.
Now these senses have their Organs in the head, for the Common sense, and imagination take up the two former Cells of the brain, although Aristotle placers the Organ of the Common sense in the heart, but the cogitative power possesses the highest, and middle part of the head; and lastly, the memory the hindmost part thereof.
Moreover, the Organs of Voice, and Speech are many, as the inward muscles of the breast betwixt the ribs, the breasts, the lungs, the arteries, the windpipe, the bowing of the Tongue, and all those parts and muscles that serve for breathing. But the proper Organ of Speech is the Mouth, in which are framed words, and speeches, the Tongue, the Teeth, the Lips, the Palate, &c.
Above the sensible soul, which expresses its powers by the Organs of the body, the incorporeal mind possesses the highest place, and it hath a double nature,
- the one, which inquires into the causes, properties, and progress of those things which are contained in the order of nature, and is content in the contemplation of the truth, which is therefore called the Contemplative Intellect.
- The other is a power of the mind, which discerning by consulting what things are to be done, and what things to be shunned is wholly taken up in consultation, and action, and is therefore called the Active Intellect.
This Order of powers therefore nature ordained in man, that by the external senses we might know corporeal things, by the internal the representations of bodies, as also things abstracted by the mind and intellect, which are neither bodies, nor any thing like them.
Appetites of the Soul
And according to this threefold order of the powers of the soul, there are three appetites in the soul:
- The first is natural, which is an inclination of nature into its end, as of a stone downward, which is in all stones;
- another is animal, which the sense follows, and it is divided into irascible, and concupiscible;
- the third is intellectual, which is called the will, differing from the sensitive, in this, the sensitive is of it self, of these things, which may be presented to the senses, desiring, nothing unless in some manner comprehended.
Passions of the Will
But the will, although it be of it self, of all things that are possible, yet because it is free by its essence, it may be also of things that are impossible, as it was in the Devil, desiring himself to be equal with God, and therefore is altered and depraved with pleasure and continual anguish, while it assents to the inferior powers. Whence from its depraved appetite there arise four passions in it, with which in like manner the body is affected sometimes.
- Whereof the first is called Oblectation, which is a certain quietness or assentation of the mind or will, because it obeys, and not willingly consents to that pleasantness which the senses hold forth; which is therefore defined to be an inclination of the mind to an effeminate pleasure.
- The second is called effusion, which is a remission of, or dissolution of the power, viz. when beyond the oblectation the whole power of the mind, and intension of the present good is melted, and diffuses itself to enjoy it.
- The third is vaunting, and loftiness, thinking it self to have attained to some great good, in the enjoyment of which it prides itself, and glories.
- The fourth and the last is Envy, or a certain kind of pleasure or delight at another mans harm, without any advantage to it self. It is said to be without any advantage to it self, because if any one should for his own profit rejoices at an other mans harm, this would rather be out of love to himself, then out of ill will to another.
And these four passions arising from a depraved appetite of pleasure, the grief or perplexity it self doth also beget so many contrary passions, as Horror, Sadness, Fear, and Sorrow at another’s good, without his own hurt, which we call Envy, i.e. Sadness at another’s prosperity, as pity is a certain kind of sadness at another’s misery.
Origins & Kinds of Passions of Mind
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 62.—Of the Passions of the Mind, their Original, difference, and kinds
The passions of the mind are nothing else but certain motions or inclinations proceeding from the apprehension of any thing, as of good or evil, convenient or inconvenient. Now these kinds of apprehensions are of three sorts, viz. Sensual, Rational, and Intellectual. And according to these three, are three sorts of passions in the Soul;
- For when they follow the Sensitive apprehension, then they respect a temporal good or evil, under the notion of profitable, or unprofitable, delightful and offensive, and are called natural, or animal passions.
- When they follow the Rational apprehension, and so respect good or bad, under the notions of Virtue or Vice, praise or disgrace, profitable or unprofitable, honest or dishonest, they are called rational, or voluntary passions.
- When they follow the Intellectual apprehension, and respect good or bad, under the notion of just or unjust, true or false, they are called intellectual passions, or synderesis.
Now the subject of the passions of the soul, is the concupitive power of the soul, and is divided into concupiscible, and irascible, and both respect good and bad, but under a different notion.
For when the concupiscible power respects good, and evil absolutely; Love or Lust,
or on the contrary, Hatred is caused:
When it respects good, as absent, so Desire is caused;
or evil, as absent, or at hand, and so is caused Horror, flying from, or loathing:
or if it respect good, as present, then there is caused delight, mirth, or pleasure;50.1
but if evil, as present, then sadness, anxiety, Grief.
But the irascible power respects good or bad, under the notion of some difficulty;
to obtain the one, or avoid the other, and this sometimes with confidence: and so there is caused Hope or Boldness;
but when with diffidency, then Despair, and Fear.
But when that irascible power raises into revenge, and this be only about some evil past, as it were of injury or hurt offered, there is caused Anger.
And so we find eleven passions in the mind, which are, Love, Hatred, Desire, Horror, Joy, Grief, Hope, Despair, Boldness, Fear, and Anger.
Passions of Mind Change the Body
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 63.—How the passions of the mind change the proper body, by changing the Accidents, and moving the spirit
The Fantasy, or imaginative power hath a ruling power over the passions of the soul, when they follow the sensual apprehension.
For this doth of its own power, according to the diversity of the Passions, first of all change the proper body with a sensible transmutation, by changing the Accidents in the body, and by moving the spirit upward or downward, inward, or outward, and by producing diverse qualities in the members.
So in joy, the spirits are driven outward,
in fear, drawn back,
in bashfulness, are moved to the brain.
So in joy, the heart is dilated outward, by little, and little,
in sadness, is constrained by little, and little inward.
After the same manner in anger or fear, but suddenly.
Again anger, or desire of revenge produces heat, redness, a bitter taste, and a looseness.
Fear induces cold, trembling of the heart, speechlessness, and paleness.
Sadness causes sweat, and a blueish whiteness.
Pity, which is a kind of sadness, doth often ill affect the body of him that takes pity, that it seems to be the body of another man affected.
Also it is manifest, that among some lovers there is such a strong tie of love, that what the one suffers, the other suffers.
Anxiety induces dryness, and blackness.
And how great heats love stirs up in the Liver, and pulse, Physicians know, discerning by that kind of judgment the name of her that is beloved, in an Heroic Passion. So Naustratus knew that Antiochus was taken with the love of Stratonica. It is also manifest that such like Passions, when they are most vehement, may cause death.
And this is manifest to all men, that with too much joy, sadness, love, hatred, men many times die, and are sometimes freed from a disease.
So we read, that Sophocles, and Dionysius the Sicilian Tyrant, did both suddenly die at the news of a Tragic victory. So a certain woman seeing her son returning from the Canensian battle, died suddenly. Now what sadness can do, is known to all. We know that Dogs oftentimes die with sadness for the death of their masters.
Sometimes also by reason of these like Passions, long diseases follow, and are sometimes cured.
So also some men looking from an high place, by reason of great fear, tremble, are dim-sighted, and weakened, and sometimes loose their senses.
So fears, and falling-sickness, sometimes follow sobbing.
Sometimes wonderful effects are produced, as in the son of Craesus, whom his mother brought forth dumb, yet a vehement fear, and ardent affection made him speak, which naturally he could never do.
So with a sudden fall oftentimes life, sense, motion on a sudden leave the members, and presently again are sometimes returned.
And how much vehement anger, joined with great audacity, can do, Alexander the Great shows, who being circumvented with a battle in India, was seen to send forth from himself lightening and fire.
The Father of Theodoricus is said to have sent forth out of his body, sparks of fire; so that sparkling flames did leap out with a noise.
And such like things sometimes appear in beasts, as in Tiberius his horse, which is said to send forth a flame out of his mouth.
How Passions of Mind Change the Body & Soul
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 64.—How the Passions of the mind change the body by way of imitation from some resemblance; Also of the transforming, and translating of men, and what force the imaginative power hath not only over the body, but the soul
The aforesaid Passions sometimes alter the body by way of imitation, by reason of the virtue which the likeness of the thing hath to change it, which power the vehement imagination moves,
- as in seating the teeth on edge at the sight or hearing of something,
- or because we see or imagine another to eat sharp or sour things:
- So he which sees another gape, gapes also;
- and some when they hear any one name sour things, their tongue waxes tart.
- Also the seeing of any filthy thing causes nauseousness.
- Many at the sight of mans blood fall into a swoon.
- Some when they see bitter meat given to any, perceive a bitter spittle in their mouth.
- And William of Paris saith, that he saw a man, that at the sight of a medicine, went to stool as oft as he pleased; when as neither the substance of the medicine, nor the odor, nor the taste of it came to him: but only a kind of resemblance was apprehended by him.
On this account some that are in a dream think they burn, and are in a fire, and are fearfully tormented, as if they did truly burn, when as the substance of the fire is not near them, but only a resemblance apprehended by their imagination.
And sometimes men’s bodies are transformed, and transfigured, and also transported, and this often when they are in a dream, and sometimes when they are awake.
So Cyprus after he was chosen King of Italy, did very much wonder at, and meditate upon the sight, and victory of Bulls, and in the thought thereof did sleep a whole night, but in the morning was found horned, no otherwise then by the vegetative power being stirred up by a vehement imagination, elevating corniferous humors into his head, and producing horns.
For a vehement cogitation, while it vehemently moves the species, pictures out the figure of the thing thought on, which they represent in their blood, and the blood impresses from it self, on the members that are nourished by it,
- as upon those of the same body, so upon those of another’s.
- As the imagination of a woman with child impresses the mark of the thing longed for upon her infant,
- and the imagination of a man bit with a mad Dog, impresses upon his Urine the image of Dogs.
- So men may grow gray on a sudden.
- And some by the dream of one night, have grown up from boys into perfect men.
- Hitherto may be referred those many scars of King Dagobertus, and marks of Franciscus, which they received, the one while he was afraid of correction, the other while he did wonderfully meditate upon the wounds of Christ.
So, many are transported from place to place, passing over rivers, fires, and impassable places, viz. when the species of any vehement desire, or fear, or boldness are impressed upon their spirits, and being mixed with vapors, do move the Organ of the touch in their original, together with fantasy, which is the original of local motion. Whence they stir up the members, and Organs of motion to motion, and are moved without any mistake unto the imagined place, not out of sight, but from the interior fantasy.
So great a power is there of the soul upon the body, that which way soever that imagines, and dreams that it goes, thither doth it lead the body.
We read many other examples by which the power of the soul upon the body is wonderfully explained,
- as is that which Avicen describes of a certain man, who when he pleased could affect his body with the palsie.
- They report of Gallus Vibius, that he did fall into madness, not casually, but on purpose: for while he did imitate mad men, he assimilated their madness to himself, and became mad indeed.
- And Austin makes mention of some men who would move their ears at their pleasure, and some that would move the crown of their head to their forehead, and could draw it back again when they pleased:
- and of another that could sweat at his pleasure.
- And it is well known, that some can weep at their pleasure, and pour forth abundance of tears: and that there are some that can bring up what they have swallowed, when they please, as out of a bag, by degrees.
- And we see that in these days there are many who can so imitate, and express the voices of Birds, Cattle, Dogs, and some men, that they can scarce at all be discerned.
- Also Pliny relates by diverse examples, that women have been turned into men. Pontanus testifies that in his time a certain women called Caietava, and another called Aemilia, who after many years, after they were married, were changed into men.
Now how much imagination can do upon the soul, no man is ignorant: for it is nearer to the substance of the soul than the sense is; wherefore it acts more upon the soul than the sense does.
- So women by certain strong imaginations, dreams, and suggestions brought in by certain Magical Arts do often times bind them into most strong loving of any one.
- So they say that Medea only by a dream, burnt in love towards Jason
So the soul sometimes is by a vehement imagination, or speculation altogether abstracted from the body,
- as Celsus relates of a certain Presbyter, who as oft as he pleased, could make himself senseless, and lie like a dead man, that when any one pricked, or burned him, he felt no pain, but lay without any motion or breathing, yet he could, as he said, hear men’s voices as it were afar off, if they cried out aloud.
But of these abstractions we shall discourse more fully in the following chapters.
Passions of Mind Changing Another’s Body
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 65.—How the Passions of the Mind can work out of themselves upon another’s Body
The Passions of the Soul which follow the fantasy, when they are most vehement, cannot only change their own body, but also can transcend so, as to work upon another body, so that some wonderful impressions are thence produced in Elements, and extrinsic things, and also can so take away, of bring some disease of the mind or body. For the Passions of the Soul are the chiefest cause of the temperament of its proper body.
So the Soul being strongly elevated, and inflamed with a strong imagination, sends forth health or sickness, not only in its proper body, but also in other bodies.
- So Avicen is of the opinion, that a Camel may fall by the imagination of any one.
- So he which is bitten with a mad Dog presently falls into a madness, and there appear in his Urine the shapes of Dogs.
- So the longing of a woman with Child, doth act upon another’s body, when it Signs the infant in the womb with the mark of the thing longed for.
- So, many monstrous generations proceed from monstrous imaginations of women with Child, as Marcus Damascenus reports was at Petra Sancta, a Town situated upon the territories of Pisa, viz. a wench that was presented to Charls King of Bohemia, who was rough and hairy all over her body, like a wild beast, whom her mother affected with a religious kind of horror upon the picture of John Baptist, which was by her bed, in time of conception, afterwards brought after this fashion.
And this we see is not only in men, but also is done among brute Creatures.
- So we read that Jacob the Patriarch, with his speckled Rods set in the watering places, did discolor the Sheep of Laban.
- So the imaginative powers of Peacocks, and other Birds, while they be coupling, impress a color upon their wings. Whence we produce white Peacocks, by hanging round the places where they couple, with white Clothes.
Now by these examples it appears how the affection of the fantasy, when it vehemently intends it self, doth not only affect its own proper body, but also another’s.
- So also the desire of Witches to hurt, doth bewitch men most perniciously with steadfast looks.
To these things Avicen, Aristotle, Algazel, and Galen assent. For it is manifest that a body may most easily be affected with the vapor of another’s diseased body,
- which we plainly see in the Plague, and Leprosy.
Again, in the vapors of the eyes there is so great a power, that they can bewitch and infect any that are near them,
- as the Cockatrice, or Basilisk, killing men with their looks.
- And certain women in Scythia, among the Illyrians, and Triballi, killed whomsoever they looked angry upon.
Therefore let no man wonder that the body, and soul of one may in like manner be affected with the mind of another, seeing the mind is far more powerful, strong, fervent, and more prevalent by its motion than vapors exhaling out of bodies; neither are there wanting Mediums, by which it should work, neither is another’s body less subjected to another’s mind than to another’s body. Upon this account they say, that a man by his affection, and habit only, may act upon another.
Therefore Philosophers advise, that the society of evil, and mischievous men be shunned, for their soul being full of noxious rays, infects them that are near with a hurtful Contagion. On the contrary, they advise that the society of good, and fortunate men be endeavored after, because by their nearness they do us much good. For as the smell of Asafoetida, or Musk, so of bad something of bad, of good something of good, is derived upon them that are nigh, and sometimes continues a long time.
Now then if the aforesaid Passions have so great a power in the Fantasy, they have certainly a greater power in the Reason, in as much as the Reason is more excellent then the Fantasy; and lastly, they have much greater power in the Mind; for this, when it is fixed upon God for any good with its whole intention, doth oftentimes affect another’s body as well as its own with some divine gift. By this means we read that many Miracles were done by Apollonius, Pythagoras, Empedocles, Philolaus, and many Prophets, and holy men of our Religion.
But of these more fully in the following chapters, where we shall discourse of Religion.
Passions of Mind, Celestial Seasons, and Belief
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 66.—That the Passions of the mind are helped by a Celestial season, and how necessary the Constancy of the mind is in every work
The Passions of the mind are much helped, and are helpful, and become most powerful by virtue of the Heavens, as they agree with the Heavens, either by any natural agreement, or voluntary Election.
For as saith Ptolomeus, he which chooses that which is the better, seems to differ nothing from him who hath this of nature. It conduces therefore very much for the receiving the benefit of the Heavens, in any work, if we shall by the Heavens make our selves suitable to it in our thoughts, affections, imaginations, elections, deliberations, contemplations, and the like.
For such like passions do vehemently stir up our spirit to their likeness, and suddenly expose us, and ours to the superior significators of such like passions; and also by reason of their dignity, and nearness to the superiors, do much more partake of the Celestials, than any material things. For our mind can through imaginations, or reason by a kind of imitation, be so conformed to any Star, as suddenly to be filled with the virtues of that Star, as if it were a proper receptacle of the influence thereof.
Now the contemplating mind, as it withdraws itself from all sense, imagination, nature, and deliberation, and calls itself back to things separated, unless as it exposes itself to Saturn, is not of present consideration, or inquiry. For our mind doth effect diverse things by faith, which is a firm adhesion, a fixed intension, and vehement application of the worker, or receiver, to him that cooperates in any thing, and gives power to the work which we intend to do. So that there is made as it were in us the image of the virtue to be received, and the thing to be done in us, or by us.
We must therefore in every work, and application of things, affect vehemently, imagine, hope, and believe strongly, for that will be a great help.
And it is verified among Physicians, that a strong belief, and an undoubted hope, and love towards the Physician, and medicine, conduce much to health, yea more sometimes than the medicine itself. For the same that the efficacy, and virtue of the medicine works, the same doth the strong imagination of the Physician work, being able to change the qualities in the body of the sick, especially when the patient places much confidence in the Physician, by that means disposing himself for the receiving the virtue of the Physician, and Physic.
Therefore he that works in Magick, must be of a constant belief, be credulous, and not at all doubt of the obtaining the effect. For as a firm, and strong belief doth work wonderful things, although it be in false works, so distrust and doubting doth dissipate, and break the virtue of the mind of the worker, which is the medium betwixt both extremes, whence it happens, that he is frustrated of the desired influence of the superiors, which could not be joined, and united to our labors without a firm, and solid virtue of our mind.
Mind Joined with Celestials
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 67.—How mans mind may be joined with the mind, and Intelligences of the Celestials, and together with them impress certain wonderful virtues upon inferior things
The Philosophers, especially the Arabians, say that man’s mind, when it is most intent upon any work, through its passion, and effects, is joined with the mind of the Stars, and Intelligences, and being so joined is the cause that some wonderful virtue be infused into our works, and things; and this, as because there is in it an apprehension, and power of all things, so because all things have a natural obedience to it, and of necessity an efficacy, and more to that which desires them with a strong desire.
And according to this is verified the Art of Characters, images, enchantments, and some speeches, and many other wonderful experiments to every thing which the mind affects.
By this means whatsoever the mind of him that is in vehement love affects, hath an efficacy to cause love, & whatsoever the mind of him that strongly hates, dictates, hath an efficacy to hurt, and destroy.
The like is in other things, which the mind affects with a strong desire. For all those things which the mind acts, and dictates by Characters, Figures, Words, Speeches, Gestures, and the like, help the appetite of the soul, and acquire certain wonderful virtues, as from the soul of the operator, in that hour when such a like appetite doth invade it, so from the opportunity, and Celestial influence, moving the mind in that manner. For our mind, when it is carried upon the great excess of any Passion, or virtue, oftentimes presently takes of it self a strong, better, and more convenient hour, or opportunity. Which Thomas Aquinas in his third book against the Gentiles, confesses. So many wonderful virtues both cause, and follow certain admirable operations by great affections, in those things which the soul doth dictate in that hour to them.
But know that such kind of things confer nothing, or very little but to the Author of them, and to him which is inclined to them, as if he were the Author of them: And this is the manner by which their efficacy is found out. And it is a general rule in them, that every mind that is more excellent in its desire, and affection, makes such like things more fit for it self, as also efficacious to that which it desires.
Every one therefore that is willing to work in Magick, must know the virtue, measure, order, and degree of his own soul, in the power of the universe.
How Mind Binds Inferior Things
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 68.—How our mind can change, and bind inferior things to that which it desires
There is also a certain virtue in the minds of men, of changing, attracting, hindering, and binding to that which they desire, and all things obey them, when they are carried into a great excess of any Passion or virtue, so as to exceed those things which they bind.
For the superior binds that which is inferior, and converts it to itself, and the inferior is by the same reason converted to the superior, or is otherwise affected, and wrought upon.
By this reason things that receive a superior degree of any Star, bind, or attract, or hinder things which have an inferior, according as they agree, or disagree among themselves.
Whence a Lion is afraid of a Cock, because the presence of the Solar virtue is more agreeable to a Cock than to a Lion:
So a Lodestone draws Iron, because in order it hath a superior degree of the Celestial Bear.
So the Diamond hinders the Lodestone, because in the order of Mars it is superior than it.
In like manner any man when he is opportunely exposed to the Celestial influences, as by the affections of his mind, so by the due applications of natural things,
- if he become stronger in a Solar virtue, binds and draws the inferior into admiration, and obedience,
- in order of the Moon to servitude or infirmities,
- in a Saturnal order to quietness or sadness;
- in order of Jupiter to worship,
- in order of Mars to fear, and discord,
- in order of Venus to love, and joy,
- in Mercurial order to persuasion, and obsequiousness, and the like.
Now the ground of such a kind of binding is the very vehement, and boundless affection of the souls, with the concourse of the Celestial order. But the dissolutions, or hindrances of such a like binding, are made by a contrary effect, and that more excellent or strong, for as the greater excess of the mind binds, so also it looses, and hinders.
And lastly, when the fairest Venus, oppose Saturn. When Saturn or Mars, oppose Venus or Jupiter: for Astrologers say, that these are most at enmity, and contrary the one to the other (i.e.) causing contrary effects in these inferior bodies; For in the heaven, where there is nothing wanting, where all things are governed with love, there can in no wise be hatred, or enmity.
Art of Fascination
Agrippa. Of Occult Philosophy. Book 1, Chapter 50.—Of Fascination, and the Art thereof
Fascination is a binding, which comes from the spirit of the Witch, through the eyes of him that is bewitched, entering to his heart.
Now the instrument of Fascination is the spirit, viz. a certain pure, lucid subtle vapor, generated of the purer blood, by the heat of the heart. This doth always send forth through the eyes, rays like to it self; Those rays being sent forth, do carry with them a spiritual vapor, and that vapor a blood, as it appears in bleary, and red eyes, whose rays being sent forth to the eyes of him that is opposite, and looks upon them, carries the vapor of the corrupt blood, together with itself, by the contagion of which, it doth infect the eyes of the beholder with the like disease.
So the eye being opened, and intent upon any one with a strong imagination, doth dart its beams, which are the Vehicle of the spirit into the eyes of him that is opposite to him, which tender spirit strikes the eyes of him that is bewitched, being stirred up from the heart of him that strikes, and possesses the breast of him that is stricken, wounds his heart, and infects his spirit. Whence Apuleius saith, Thy eyes sliding down through my eyes, into mine inward breast, stirs up a most vehement burning in my Marrow.
Know therefore that men are then most bewitched, when with often beholding they direct the edge of their sight to the edge of their sight that bewitch them, and when their eyes are reciprocally intent one upon the other, and when rays are joined to rays, and lights to lights, for then the spirit of the one is joined to the spirit of the other, and fixes its sparks:
So are strong ligations made, and so most vehement loves are inflamed with only the rays of the eyes, even with a certain sudden looking on, as if it were with a dart, or stroke penetrating the whole body, whence then the spirit, and amorous blood being thus wounded, are carried forth upon the lover, and enchanter, no otherwise then the blood, and spirit of the vengeance of him that is slain, are upon him that slays him.
Whence Lucretius sang concerning those amorous bewitchings:
The body smitten is, but yet the mind Is wounded with the darts of Cupid blind. All parts do Sympathize i’th’ wound, but know The blood appears in that which had the blow.
So great is the power of Fascination, especially when the vapors of the eyes are subservient to the affection. Therefore Witches use collieries, ointments, allegations, and such like, to affect, and corroborate the spirit this or that manner.
To procure love, they use Venereal collieries, as Hippomanes, the blood of Doves, or Sparrows, and such like.
To induce fear, they use Martial collieries, as of the eyes of Wolves, the Civet Cat, and the like.
To procure misery or sickness, they use Saturnine, and so of the rest.