Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of –2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.
Jupiter represents power. Its qualities differ according to its aspects. Its symbol is an eagle; because it enables man to rise up by its power into their heighest regions of thought, even to the throne of the Eternal. It is, or ought to be, therefore, the ruling planet for ecclesiastics and clergymen, and those who have to deal with the administration of justice. Its influence gives eloquence. It is friendly with all the rest of the planets except ♂; the latter being loved by none except ♀. In the mineral kingdom it is represented by tin; in the spiritual realm by Jupiter, the king of the gods, who obtain their power through him.
Jupiter, also Jove, is the god of sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as sacrifice.
Zeus was the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter.
Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus’s stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad states that he fathered Aphrodite. Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses.
He was respected as an allfather who was chief of the gods and assigned the others to their roles: “Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence.” He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe “That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men”. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical “cloud-gatherer” (Greek: Νεφεληγερέτα, Nephelēgereta) also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.
The FUMIGATION from STORAX.
O Jove much-honored, Jove supremely great,
To thee our holy rites we consecrate,
Our prayers and expiations, king divine,
For all things round thy head exalted shine.
The earth is thine, and mountains swelling high,
The sea profound, and all within the sky.
Saturnian king, descending from above,
Magnanimous, commanding, sceptred Jove;
All-parent, principle and end of all,
Whose power almighty, shakes this earthly ball;
Even Nature trembles at thy mighty nod,
Loud-sounding, armed with lightning, thundering God.
Source of abundance, purifying king,
O various-formed from whom all natures spring;
Propitious hear my prayer, give blameless health,
With peace divine, and necessary wealth.
The FUMIGATION from AROMATICS.
O Royal Juno of majestic mien,
Aerial-formed, divine, Jove’s blessed queen,
Throned in the bosom of cærulean air,
The race of mortals is thy constant care.
The cooling gales thy power alone inspires,
Which nourish life, which every life desires.
Mother of clouds and winds, from thee alone
Producing all things, mortal life is known:
All natures share thy temperament divine,
And universal sway alone is thine.
With founding blasts of wind, the swelling sea
And rolling rivers roar, when shook by thee.
Come, blessed Goddess, famed almighty queen,
With aspect kind, rejoicing and serene.
The FUMIGATION from STORAX.
O Father Jove, who shakest with fiery light
The world deep-sounding from thy lofty height:
From thee, proceeds the ætherial lightning’s blaze,
Flashing around intolerable rays.
Thy sacred thunders shake the blest abodes,
The shining regions of the immortal Gods:
Thy power divine, the flaming lightning shrouds,
With dark investiture, in fluid clouds.
’Tis thine to brandish thunders strong and dire,
To scatter storms, and dreadful darts of fire;
With roaring flames involving all around,
And bolts of thunder of tremendous sound.
Thy rapid dart can raise the hair upright,
And shake the heart of man with wild afright.
Sudden, unconquered, holy, thundering God,
With noise unbounded, flying all abroad;
With all-devouring force, entire and strong,
Horrid, untamed, thou rollest the flames along.
Rapid, ætherial bolt, descending fire,
The earth all-parent, trembles at thy ire;
The sea all-shining; and each beast that hears
The sound terrific, with dread horror fears:
When Nature’s face is bright with flashing fire,
And in the heavens resound thy thunders dire.
Thy thunders white, the azure garments tear,
And burst the veil of all surrounding air.
O Jove, all-blessed, may thy wrath severe,
Hurled in the bosom of the deep appear,
And on the tops of mountains be revealed,
For thy strong arm is not from us concealed.
Propitious to these sacred rites incline,
And crown my wishes with a life divine:
Add royal health, and gentle peace beside,
With equal reason, for my constant guide.
The FUMIGATION from FRANKINCENSE and MANNA.
I Call the mighty, holy, splendid light,
Aerial, dreadful-sounding, fiery-bright;
Flaming, aerial-light, with angry voice,
Lightning through lucid clouds with horrid noise.
Untamed, to whom resentments dire belong,
Pure, holy power, all-parent, great and strong:
Come, and benevolent these rites attend,
And grant my days a peaceful, blessed end.
Jupiter is placed next to Saturn (amongst the Ancients) you shall sometimes finde him called Zeus, or Phaeton: He is the greatest in appearance to our eyes of all the Planets (the Sun, Moon and Venus excepted;)
TERMS: He hath also these degrees allotted for his Tearmes, viz.
In Aries, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
In Taurus, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22.
In Gemini, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
In Cancer, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.
In Leo, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25.
In Virgo, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.
In Libra, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19.
In Scorpio, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
In Sagittarius, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.
In Capricorn, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19.
In Aquarius, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25.
In Pisces, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
FACE: He hath assigned him for his Face or Decanate,
Of Gemini, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Of Leo, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
Of Libra, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Of Capricorn, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Of Pisces, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
He is Retrograde about 120 dayes, is five days in his first station before retrogradation, and four dayes stationary before Direction.
The days and hours of Jupiter are proper for obtaining honours, acquiring riches; contracting friendships, preserving health; and arriving at all that thou canst desire.
The hours of the Sun, of Jupiter, and of Venus, are adapted for preparing any operations whatsoever of love, of kindness, and of invisibility, as is hereafter more fully shown, to which must be added other things of a similar nature which are contained in our work.
The hours of the Sun, of Jupiter, and of Venus, particularly on the days which they rule, are good for all extraordinary, uncommon, and unknown operations.
These pentacles are usually made of the metal the most suitable to the nature of the planet; and then there is no occasion to observe the rule of particular colours.
Saturn ruleth over lead;
Jupiter over tin;
Mars over iron;
the Sun over gold;
Venus over copper;
Mercury over the mixture of metals;
and the Moon over silver.
They may also be made with exorcised virgin paper writing thereon with the colours adopted for each planet, referring to the rules already laid down in the proper chapters, and according to the planet with which the pentacle is in sympathy.
Wherefore unto Saturn the colour of black is appropriated;
Jupiter ruleth over celestial blue;
Mars over red;
the Sun over gold, or the colour of yellow or citron;
Venus over green;
Mercury over mixed colours;
the Moon over silver, or the colour of argentine earth.
Things under Jupiter,
Under Jupiter with Sagittarius are Tuscana. Celtica, Spain and Happy Arabia: under him with Pisces are Lycia, Lydia, Cilicia, Phamphylia, Paphlagonia, Nasamonia and Libya.
For Jupiter take the seed of ash, lignum aloes, storax, the gum benjamin, the lazule stone, the tops of the feathers of a peacock, and incorporate them with the blood of a stork, or a swallow and the brain of a hart
To Jupiter, odoriferous fruits, such as nutmegs, cloves
Unto Jupiter are ascribed all privileged places, consistories of noble men, tribunals, chairs, places for exercises, schools and all beautiful, and clean places, scattered or sprinkled with divers odors.
Sapphire, and airy colours, and those which are alwaies green, clear, purple, darkish, golden, mixed with Silver, belong to Jupiter.
From the operations of Jupiter,
The names of Celestiall souls are very many, and diverse according to their manifold power and vertue upon these inferior things, from whence they have received divers names, which the ancients in their hymnes and prayer made use of. Concerning which you must observe, that every one of these souls according to Orpheus’s Divinity, is said to have a double vertue; the one placed in knowing, the other in vivifying, and governing its body. Upon this account in the Celestiall spheres, Orpheus cals the former vertue Bacchus, the other a Muse. Hence he is not inebriated by any Bacchus, who hath not first been coupled to his Muse.
in the sphere of Jupiter, Sabasius, and Terpsichore;
Moreover they did call those governors of the world, (as Hermes calls them) Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, by many names, and epithites;
So Jupiter is called as it were a helping Father, the King of heaven, Magnanimous, thundering, lightning, unconquered, high and mighty, great and mighty, good, fortunate, sweet, mild, of good will, honest, pure, walking well, and in honour, the Lord of joy and of judgements, wise, true, the shewer of truth, the judge of all things, excelling all in goodness, the Lord of riches, and wisdome.
The Spirits of Jupiter do appear with a body sanguine and cholerick, of a middle stature, with a horrible fearful motion; but with a milde countenance, a gentle speech, and of the color of Iron. The motion of them is flashings of Lightning and Thunder; their signe is, there will appear men about the circle, who shall seem to be devoured of lions. Their particular forms are,
TT: Juno is called by the Orphic theologers, according to Proclus Ζωογόνος ϑεά or the vivific Goddess: an epithet perfectly agreeing with the attributes ascribed to her in this Hymn. And in Theol. Plat. p. 483, he says that Juno is the source of the soul’s procreation. ↩
Zeus Keraunos. ↩
Zeus Astrapaios. ↩
Omitted in English, tuthia in Latin. I suspect means bluestone, or copper sulphate, which can be a striking shade of blue. Alchemists knew it as blue vitriol. ↩